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SAGE Publications Inc: Social Marketing Quarterly: Table of Contents

Table of Contents for Social Marketing Quarterly. List of articles from both the latest and ahead of print issues.

Social Marketing Quarterly

  • CBE: A Framework to Guide the Application of Marketing to Behavior Change
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Ahead of Print. <br/>Background:This paper aims to extend the application of social marketing to social and environmentally beneficial behavior change providing a three-step process—Co-create-Build-Engage (CBE). The key strength social marketing brings to the social change space is the development of something of value that moves and motivates people to voluntarily change their behavior; in turn benefitting themselves, the planet and society at large.Method:Using a case study method, this paper identifies how up to eight marketing principles, initially penned to distinguish social marketing from public health, are applied in the three step CBE process, using first time program development and implementation examples. First, programs are co-created (C) with people at the heart of the problem and built (B) to create and embed lasting solutions and finally communities are engaged (E) to partake in these programs. This linear process is applied in first time program development and stages blur following first time implementation as CBE steps become continuous when programs are embedded into communities. This paper outlines four cases demonstrating when and where key marketing activities were applied to co-create, build and implement social marketing programs that achieved behavioral change.Results:Included is a roadmap of the activities that occurred in first time program development and implementation across each stage of the three step CBE process. During co-creation competition is assessed and groups are identified (segmentation). Formative research programs are theoretically underpinned and human centred (customer orientation) and solely aimed at identifying insights to guide program build and engagement. Elements of the marketing mix focus program build ensuring that a valued exchange offering is built. Engagement represents the initial implementation phase and encompasses the set of activities that focus on ensuring people are aware of and can adopt the program.Recommendations for Research or Practice:Many of the foundational techniques that distinguish social marketing from other behavioral science approaches are not widely adopted. This paper offers a roadmap to demonstrate how and when core social marketing activities can be applied to effect voluntary behavior change. Volitional change avoids stigmatization, alienation, reactance and community divides, which occur when behaviors are mandated or when people are told what to do. The CBE process provides a process, outlining social marketing’s key principles and the set of activities that are applied to build more effective marketing programs.

  • Drivers of Middle-Class Consumers’ Green Appliance Attitude and Purchase Behavior: A Multi-Theory Application
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Volume 27, Issue 2, Page 150-171, June 2021. <br/>Background:Some 80% of the South African (SA) middle class consumers use washing machines, electric cookers, fridges, freezers and other appliances. Considering the growing water and electricity shortages in SA, the government advocates the use of green appliances. However, the factors helping or hindering the positive attitudes, purchase and use of green appliances need examination.Focus of the article:This study focuses on the first and second steps of the community-based social marketing (CBSM) framework, whereby for behavioral change, behaviors, their drivers and barriers are to be examined before strategy formulation. Thus, this study first assessed SA black middle class consumers’ green appliances attitude, behavioral intention and actual behavior. It then integrated the Theory of Consumption Values (TCV), Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DOI), and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine the consumer-related and product-related factors helping or hindering the green appliances attitudes, behavioral intentions and actual behavior.Research Hypotheses:From the integration of the TCV, DOI and TPB, a conceptual model was developed that proposed that consumer-related factors (functional, conditional, epistemic, emotional and social values) and product-related factors (relative advantage, complexity, compatibility and observability) will influence green appliances attitude, which with perceived behavioral control will impact behavioral intention, proposed as a driver of actual behavior.Methods:Considering that the black middle-class are a fast growing and large (about 4.2 million South Africans) community of consumers, cross-sectional quantitative data was collected from 500 black middle class consumers through self-administered questionnaires. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling was used to test 14 hypotheses.Results:The respondents expressed positive attitudes toward green appliances (M = 5.80 on a 7-point Likert scale and positive intention to buy green appliances (M = 5.78). Most of the study participants have purchased one or more green appliances (M = 6.09). The integrated model explained 84.5% of attitude toward green appliances. The significant drivers of attitude were functional, conditional, and epistemic values (consumer-related factors), and relative advantage, compatibility, and observability (product-related factors). The attitude, social value and perceived behavioral control explained 83.1% of behavioral intention, which with PBC explained 24.2% of actual behavior.Recommendations for practice:Considering that the third step of the CBSM framework is to develop strategies for behavioral change, the South-African government, environmental agencies and social marketers should seek ways to reward the large segment of black middle class consumers, so that their positive green appliances attitudes and behavioral intentions can further be converted to actual purchase. The consumer-related and product-related drivers of attitudes and purchase behaviors identified in this study should be used to position and promote green appliances using the middle class consumers as opinion leaders or endorsers.Limitations:The main limitation is the use of a survey which limits provision of deeper insights into drivers and barriers of green appliances attitudes and behaviors.

  • Antecedents of Green Purchasing Behavior in the Arabic Gulf
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Volume 27, Issue 2, Page 133-149, June 2021. <br/>Background:Despite consumers appearing to assign great importance to green purchasing and expecting companies to produce their goods in an environmentally friendly way, they do not always exhibit this positive attitude while making purchases.Focus:This paper aims to discuss the extent to which green purchasing behavior in the Arabic Gulf is affected by individuals’ perceived environmental attitudes, concern, perceived seriousness of environmental problems, perceived environmental responsibility, perceived self-identity in environmental protection, perceived social context in environmental protection, as well as demographics.Methods:The study adopted a quantitative research approach using a survey questionnaire on a sample of 324 individuals residing in different Arab countries in the Gulf area. A 5-point Likert scale was used. Path analysis was conducted to test and evaluate the hypothesized relationships among constructs.Results:The study found importantly, by using multiple regression analyses, that consumers’ environmental concern, self-identity in environmental protection, and social context in environmental protection are significant predictors of green purchasing behavior and can predict 38.9% of green purchasing behavior. Among demographic factors, gender showed a significant effect on green purchasing behavior.Importance to Social Marketing Field:The present study enhances the social marketing literature through the understanding of green purchasing behaviors from a perspective of non-Western countries.Recommendation for Research or Practice:This paper has significant managerial implications. The findings could help marketers and government in formulating strategies that encourage green purchasing behavior in the Arabic Gulf.Limitations:Although the current study shed some light on green purchasing behaviors in the Arabic Gulf, it did not focus on a particular type of green product; rather, it looked at green purchasing behavior in general.

  • Influencing the Intention to Adopt Anti-Littering Behavior: An Approach With Modified TPB Model
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Volume 27, Issue 2, Page 117-132, June 2021. <br/>Background:Littering has been identified as a major issue in India that has negative impacts on the environment as well as public health.Focus of the article:Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior, this empirical study determines the influence of three major concepts namely attitude, subjective norms, and self-efficacy on the intention to adopt anti-littering behavior.Research Hypotheses:The hypotheses stipulate that attitude, subjective norms, and self-efficacy have a significant influence on the intention to perform anti-littering behavior.Methods:In total, 750 individuals were interviewed at 34 locations across the states of New Delhi and Punjab (India) in a field survey. The data have been analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis in AMOS 21.0 to classify the considerations of the antecedents of the intention according to their relative significance using the natural gaps in standardized regression weight values. Subsequently, path analysis has been used to test a series of hypotheses concerning the direct effects of attitude, subjective norms, and self-efficacy on the intention to adopt anti-littering behavior.Results:The findings of the study revealed that all three constructs; attitude, subjective norms, and self-efficacy have a significant influence on the intention to adopt anti-littering behavior. Subjective norms influence intention to the highest extent closely followed by attitude.Recommendations for Research/Practice:Social marketers are recommended to target subjective norms and attitude while designing social marketing interventions to promote anti-littering behavior.Limitations:One limitation of this study is the existing gap between self-reported behavioral intention and actual behavior.

  • Evaluating Social Marketing Messages in New Zealand’s Like Minds Campaign and Its Effect on Stigma
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Volume 27, Issue 2, Page 82-98, June 2021. <br/>Background:A key objective of government and social marketers is to remove the institutionalized stigma of mental illness, increasing mental health service uptake. While research has evaluated past campaigns based on changes in attitudes and beliefs, very little research has examined the communication messages used in social marketing campaigns.Focus of the Article:This impact evaluation research identifies the institutionalized cultural-moral norms incorporated into New Zealand’s Like Minds mental health advertisements and examines how attitudes and beliefs changed over time in response to these norms.Importance to the Social Marketing Field:This research offers a new approach to social marketing evaluation and demonstrates the importance of consistent incorporation of cultural-moral institutional norms in social marketing campaigns.Method:Using macro-social marketing theory, thematic analysis is used to identify the cultural-moral institutional norms in the Like Minds campaign advertisements over a 10-year period (2002–2012).Results:The Like Minds campaign was found to have multiple cultural-moral institutional norms, such as Mental illness as a villain, Personal responsibility, and Inherent human dignity, as well as utilizing two different institutionalization processes of Socialization and Identity Formation. However, these norms were inconsistently and sometimes contradictorily presented and as a result, not all changes in mental health stigma beliefs and attitudes show long term change. Rates for service uptake also had mixed results during the campaign duration, though overall an increase in uptake was found.Recommendations for Research and Practice:The research highlights the importance of understanding the underlying institutionalized cultural-moral norms presented in communications and aligning those with the overall objectives of a social marketing campaign.Limitations: Like Minds campaign phases 2 to 5 are analyzed, phase 1 was inaccessible for analysis and advertisements after 2012 are not analyzed.

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