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SAGE Publications Inc: Social Marketing Quarterly: Table of Contents

Table of Contents for Social Marketing Quarterly. List of articles from both the latest and ahead of print issues.

Social Marketing Quarterly

  • Consumer Journeys of Adolescent Girls and Young Women in South Africa: Implications for Marketing HIV Prevention Products
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Ahead of Print. <br/>Background:Female-initiated prevention products could reduce HIV infection rates in contexts with pronounced gender inequality like South Africa, but uptake and adherence remain low when available. Insights into the behavior of target consumers are needed to effectively promote these products; however, perceptions of stigma may discourage honest reporting.Focus of the Article:To address this need, we examined differences among the consumer journeys of six segments of South African adolescent girls and young women (AGYW), who vary on sexual health beliefs, sexual experience, and self-enhancement, when buying hygiene products.Research Question:We hypothesized that segments would differ in what motivated their purchases and in engagement with different touchpoints, reflecting a need for targeted outreach strategies.Methods:1,500 low-income, Black South African AGYW (14–25 years of age) were surveyed face-to-face in their homes about their consumer journeys when purchasing deodorant and sanitary products, with the aim of extending the insights obtained to HIV prevention.Results:We found notable similarities across segments but also several important differences underscoring the potential for tailored marketing of HIV prevention products. Among some of the segments, differences were found in prepurchase mindsets and touchpoints, retail and brand drivers, and postpurchase feelings.Recommendations for Research or Practice:These findings highlight the need for tailored outreach among AGYW and may inform the design of effective, personalized marketing strategies that enhance the appeal of HIV prevention products.Limitations:To circumvent potential stigma associated with HIV, survey questions were anchored on personal hygiene products. While this may encourage greater honesty, findings may not fully generalize to HIV prevention products.

  • Can an Index Approach Improve Social Marketing Competitor Analysis?
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Ahead of Print. <br/>Background:Competitive forces influence social marketing efforts. Indeed, social marketers often find themselves “shadow boxing” various forms of competition throughout their interventions. Despite the seminal role of competition as a threat to social marketing intervention efficacy, few empirical studies have undertaken competitive analysis or compared the usefulness of competitive typologies. Thus, this paper proposes an index approach to categorize competitive typologies relevant to a specific social marketing intervention in terms of their ease of use, intuitiveness and generalisability to the broader social cause domain. The proposed index approach is illustrated with empirical data, undertaking a competitive analysis of forces obstructing efforts to address educational inequality in Australia, then comparing the ease of use, intuitiveness and generalisability of 15 competitive typologies noted in the social marketing literature to produce a competitor analysis index.Research Question:Which competitive typologies most effectively frame forces that inhibit educational equality social marketing efforts in Australia?Methods:Via interviews and focus groups, qualitative data were collected from 46 students from low socioeconomic status (LSES) backgrounds at six universities and sought to understand the influence of their home residence’s geographical remoteness on their university participation. The analysis revealed eight participant-identified differential competitors experienced by students from regional, rural and remote settings (LSES-R, n = 25, 54.4%) that were not experienced by those from metropolitan areas (LSES-M, n = 21, 45.6%). Fifteen competitive typologies were identified in the social marketing literature, and their capacity to frame these eight differential forces in terms of their ease of use, intuitiveness and generalisability was critiqued.Findings:Unlike their metropolitan counterparts, LSES-R participants experienced situational (n = 3), dispositional (n = 3) and goal pursuit (n = 2) competitive forces. The most effective competition typologies comprised two classification options that were distinctly different and could classify both the unfriendly and friendly competition that exists in social marketing. Five competitor typologies were identified as easy to use, intuitive and generalizable to the broader educational inequality domain. Together, these five competitor typologies form a competitor analysis index for educational inequality researchers and practitioners to enhance their intervention efficacy.Recommendations:Despite widespread agreement as to the importance of competitor analysis in social marketing, the efficacy of various typologies has received little attention. Social marketers are encouraged to critique competitor typologies before selecting those which enable effective decision-making. Furthermore, it is recommended that social marketers use a competitor analysis index comprised of multiple typologies to better capture the nebulous nature of the many different types of competitors that exist in a specific social marketing context.Limitations:The educational inequalities cause and qualitative method may constrain generalisability, but they exemplify the importance of competition typology choice and model how competitor analysis indexes can be developed.

  • Positive, Negative or Both? Assessing Emotional Appeals Effectiveness in Anti-Drink Driving Advertisements
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Ahead of Print. <br/>Background:The use of advertising to influence social behavior is one element of social marketing campaigns. While it is known that informational appeals are less effective in changing social perceptions and behaviors, the literature presents mixed and inconsistent results of which appeal (i.e. positive negative or both) is more effective in changing social behavior. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of positive, negative and a combination of both appeals on young adults’ drink driving perceptions.Focus:This article is related to research and evaluation of the social marketing field.Research Question:Which, if any, of positive, negative or combination of both emotional appeals, is most effective in changing young adults’ drink driving attitudes, norms and intentions and how well do intentions explain behavior?Importance to the Field:The study builds on, and extends previous research exploring the effectiveness of emotional appeals, contributing to the literature by exploring both emotional appeals along the testing of each appeal separately. The research also validates the TRA’s utility beyond previously explored contexts. At a practical level, the research informs the work of advertising message design. It is recommended that, social marketers consider combined emotional appeals approach when designing messages.Methods:Respondents were randomly exposed to one of three emotional appeals (positive, negative or both) and asked to complete a questionnaire about their attitudes, norms and intentions to drink drive before and after exposure. Two analyses were used, Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling to validate the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), and paired sample t-tests to assess change of perceptions over time between the three groups.Results:First the study found the TRA to have a strong predictive utility in explaining drink driving intentions. Second, the combination of both positive and negative emotional appeals was found more effective in changing drink driving attitudes, norms and intentions of young adults.Recommendations for Research or Practice:The study recommends that, social marketers consider combined emotional appeals approach when designing messages. However, further investigation is required to confirm this recommendation and as in any campaign, pre-testing the advertisements with the target audience is a must.Limitations:The key limitations of the study include the use of non-probability sampling, self-reported data, and varied exposure times. Future research should utilize autonomic measures to accurately assess perceptions and emotions as well as unifying the time of exposure for all emotional appeals.

  • CBE: A Framework to Guide the Application of Marketing to Behavior Change
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Ahead of Print. <br/>Background:This paper aims to extend the application of social marketing to social and environmentally beneficial behavior change providing a three-step process—Co-create-Build-Engage (CBE). The key strength social marketing brings to the social change space is the development of something of value that moves and motivates people to voluntarily change their behavior; in turn benefitting themselves, the planet and society at large.Method:Using a case study method, this paper identifies how up to eight marketing principles, initially penned to distinguish social marketing from public health, are applied in the three step CBE process, using first time program development and implementation examples. First, programs are co-created (C) with people at the heart of the problem and built (B) to create and embed lasting solutions and finally communities are engaged (E) to partake in these programs. This linear process is applied in first time program development and stages blur following first time implementation as CBE steps become continuous when programs are embedded into communities. This paper outlines four cases demonstrating when and where key marketing activities were applied to co-create, build and implement social marketing programs that achieved behavioral change.Results:Included is a roadmap of the activities that occurred in first time program development and implementation across each stage of the three step CBE process. During co-creation competition is assessed and groups are identified (segmentation). Formative research programs are theoretically underpinned and human centred (customer orientation) and solely aimed at identifying insights to guide program build and engagement. Elements of the marketing mix focus program build ensuring that a valued exchange offering is built. Engagement represents the initial implementation phase and encompasses the set of activities that focus on ensuring people are aware of and can adopt the program.Recommendations for Research or Practice:Many of the foundational techniques that distinguish social marketing from other behavioral science approaches are not widely adopted. This paper offers a roadmap to demonstrate how and when core social marketing activities can be applied to effect voluntary behavior change. Volitional change avoids stigmatization, alienation, reactance and community divides, which occur when behaviors are mandated or when people are told what to do. The CBE process provides a process, outlining social marketing’s key principles and the set of activities that are applied to build more effective marketing programs.

  • Drivers of Middle-Class Consumers’ Green Appliance Attitude and Purchase Behavior: A Multi-Theory Application
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Volume 27, Issue 2, Page 150-171, June 2021. <br/>Background:Some 80% of the South African (SA) middle class consumers use washing machines, electric cookers, fridges, freezers and other appliances. Considering the growing water and electricity shortages in SA, the government advocates the use of green appliances. However, the factors helping or hindering the positive attitudes, purchase and use of green appliances need examination.Focus of the article:This study focuses on the first and second steps of the community-based social marketing (CBSM) framework, whereby for behavioral change, behaviors, their drivers and barriers are to be examined before strategy formulation. Thus, this study first assessed SA black middle class consumers’ green appliances attitude, behavioral intention and actual behavior. It then integrated the Theory of Consumption Values (TCV), Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DOI), and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine the consumer-related and product-related factors helping or hindering the green appliances attitudes, behavioral intentions and actual behavior.Research Hypotheses:From the integration of the TCV, DOI and TPB, a conceptual model was developed that proposed that consumer-related factors (functional, conditional, epistemic, emotional and social values) and product-related factors (relative advantage, complexity, compatibility and observability) will influence green appliances attitude, which with perceived behavioral control will impact behavioral intention, proposed as a driver of actual behavior.Methods:Considering that the black middle-class are a fast growing and large (about 4.2 million South Africans) community of consumers, cross-sectional quantitative data was collected from 500 black middle class consumers through self-administered questionnaires. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling was used to test 14 hypotheses.Results:The respondents expressed positive attitudes toward green appliances (M = 5.80 on a 7-point Likert scale and positive intention to buy green appliances (M = 5.78). Most of the study participants have purchased one or more green appliances (M = 6.09). The integrated model explained 84.5% of attitude toward green appliances. The significant drivers of attitude were functional, conditional, and epistemic values (consumer-related factors), and relative advantage, compatibility, and observability (product-related factors). The attitude, social value and perceived behavioral control explained 83.1% of behavioral intention, which with PBC explained 24.2% of actual behavior.Recommendations for practice:Considering that the third step of the CBSM framework is to develop strategies for behavioral change, the South-African government, environmental agencies and social marketers should seek ways to reward the large segment of black middle class consumers, so that their positive green appliances attitudes and behavioral intentions can further be converted to actual purchase. The consumer-related and product-related drivers of attitudes and purchase behaviors identified in this study should be used to position and promote green appliances using the middle class consumers as opinion leaders or endorsers.Limitations:The main limitation is the use of a survey which limits provision of deeper insights into drivers and barriers of green appliances attitudes and behaviors.

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