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SAGE Publications Inc: Social Marketing Quarterly: Table of Contents

Table of Contents for Social Marketing Quarterly. List of articles from both the latest and ahead of print issues.

Social Marketing Quarterly

  • Outcome Evaluation of an Empirical Study: Food Waste Social Marketing Pilot
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Ahead of Print. <br/>Background:Evidence indicates behavior change is more likely when more social marketing benchmark principles are applied. Yet, transparent and clear reporting of the application of benchmarks to change behavior is rare.Focus of the Article:The aims of this study were (1) to verify the efficacy of social marketing in reducing food waste and (2) to enumerate and critique the practicality of applying social marketing benchmark criteria.Research Question:To address the research aims, two research questions were proposed: (1) Can a social marketing program designed with consumers reduce household food waste behavior? and (2) How are social marketing benchmarks applied to reduce food waste?Program Design/Approach:A consumer-insight driven social marketing program Waste Not Want Not (WNWN) was designed following the social marketing process and delivered to local Redland City Council residents located within the pilot area. This article reports a process and outcome evaluation for the pilot study and a critical evaluation of benchmark criteria application.Importance to the Social Marketing Field:This article demonstrates social marketing’s efficacy to reduce food waste behavior in households, and it critically evaluates application of benchmark criteria to assist future research and practice.Methods:In total, 314 local council area residents were randomly allocated into either a program (n = 110) or control group (n = 204). The program group received intervention materials and invitations to attend the 2-week program activities held in a local shopping center. Control group participants received nothing. The extent of social marketing benchmark application was examined for the WNWN program.Results:Outcome evaluation indicated that the pilot study reduced self-reported household food waste and increased perceived level of self-efficacy in cooking for the program group, but not the control group. WNWN successfully applied five of the eight social marketing benchmark criteria, namely, consumer orientation, insight, competition, marketing mix, and behavior change.Recommendations for Research or Practice:Given that use of more benchmarks increases the likelihood of behavior change, future research must advocate for complete application of the eight major social marketing benchmark criteria in program design. Clear operational definitions are required to improve practice and behavioral change outcomes.Limitations:Study 1 focused on individual feedback and self-reported data minimizing the possibility of generalization. Future research could employ observational methods and involve a wider array of stakeholders to increase generalizability.

  • How One Social Marketing Organization Is Transitioning From Charity to Social Enterprise
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Ahead of Print. <br/>The financing model of the U.S. non-profit social marketing organization DKT International has changed dramatically since it was founded 31 years ago. In the early days, DKT was reliant on donor funding, and most of its products were heavily subsidized in order to reach low-income and marginalized populations. However, over the last three decades, DKT has become increasingly financially sustainable due to a fortuitous combination of clever marketing, rising incomes, and the stable and often declining cost of procuring contraceptives. This has been especially true in middle-income countries like Indonesia, Brazil, and Ghana but also in lower-income countries and regions like Ethiopia and Bihar, India. Because all DKT programs sell products, they earn revenue. Through a mixture of cost recovery and cross-subsidization strategies, DKT has been able to simultaneously serve a wide range of income segments while generating sales revenue that can offset costs and even turn a profit in some countries. Such profits are reinvested in activities that educate and shift behavior or deployed to other countries to start up new ventures. This article describes the transition experienced by DKT, from charity to social enterprise, and profiles country examples in three different stages of financial sustainability, providing potential lessons for other non-profits. As generating resources for non-profits becomes more challenging, organizations may wish to explore ways to generate revenues and increase cost recovery by monetizing the products and services they provide.

  • If Childish Gambino Cares, I Care: Celebrity Endorsements and Psychological Reactance to Social Marketing Messages
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Ahead of Print. <br/>Background:Increasingly, celebrities are used as spokespeople for nearly all types of marketing. Endorsements can build positive celebrity-brand associations, resulting in favorable brand, product, or issue knowledge.Focus of the Article:This project examines the impact of celebrity influence in social marketing campaigns. Source and receiver characteristics are used to explore how people react to such persuasive messages from celebrities and how those reactions influence behavior.Research Question:Do race (RQ1) and gender (RQ2) of celebrity influence perceptions of (a) credibility, (b) similarity, and (c) heuristic evaluation? How do these factors influence message evaluation (RQ3)?Perceptions of (a) source credibility and (b) similarity as well as (c) heuristic evaluations will increase positive message evaluations (H1). Such positive message evaluations will increase behavioral intentions (H4).Level of (a) perceived source credibility, (b) perceived similarity, and (c) heuristic evaluation of a message is negatively related to message reactance (H2).The level of psychological reactance to a message source is negatively related to behavioral intent related to the message topic (H3).Importance to the Social Marketing Field:The objective of this study is to better understand how characteristics of celebrities, perceptions of the celebrities, and psychological barriers impact intended behavior change attributed to a social marketing message. Because social marketing seeks behavior change as part of an exchange with the targeted audiences, this study contributes a basic understanding of how attributes of the speaker impact social marketing effectiveness.Methods:An experiment was conducted (N = 798) comparing how persuasive messages from celebrities of different genders and races are perceived.Results:Results indicate that there are significant differences in how persuasive messages from female celebrities are received as compared to messages from male celebrities. Further, race was shown to play a role in feelings of psychological reactance in response to the persuasive messages.Recommendations for Research of Practice:Results suggests marketers should seek out celebrity spokespeople who have the ability to be well-liked by members of the targeted market. The desire to identify with the message source can be a significant enough benefit to inspire behavior change. Having a spokesperson the audience wants to align themselves with is positively correlated with behavioral intentions.

  • Checking Our Blind Spots: The Most Common Mistakes Made by Social Marketers
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Volume 26, Issue 1, Page 14-27, March 2020. <br/>Background:The work of social marketers and the environment in which they work is complex, which inevitably results in mistakes being made and sometimes, the failure of a social marketing program. Unfortunately, social marketers do not often report their own mistakes. Even when failures or mistakes are reported, it is usually for the purpose of one study, as opposed to a wider understanding of mistakes made by social marketers in the field. This is a significant gap in the development of social marketing practice since understanding the nature of the most common mistakes made by social marketers could assist them in assessing their own shortcomings and potentially lead to more effective programs.Focus:This article is related to research and evaluation of the social marketing field.Research Question:What are the perceptions of social marketing experts regarding the most common mistakes made by social marketers?Importance to the Field:A greater understanding of the common mistakes made by social marketers will allow practitioners to assess their own shortcomings, improve program outcomes, and raise the status of the social marketing field.Methods:This research is qualitative and exploratory, with a constructivist, grounded theory methodology. In-depth interviews with 17 social marketing experts were conducted. Experts were purposefully chosen based on a set of criteria including the number of years of experience they had in the field.Results:The interviews revealed nine mistake categories: inadequate research, poor strategy development, ad hoc approaches to programs, mismanagement of stakeholders, poorly designed program objectives, weak evaluation and monitoring, poor execution of pilots, inadequate segmentation and targeting, and poor documentation. Additionally, the interviews revealed two other emergent, crosscutting themes that affect the mistakes being made: external influences that the social marketer may not have direct control over and the social marketer’s own preconceptions that they bring to the program.Recommendations for Research or Practice:Future research may explore (1) the extent to which external influences lead to social marketing program success or failure, particularly in comparison to mistakes made by social marketers and (2) perspectives from the social marketing community as to the most common mistakes made by social marketers. Social marketers may consider being more reflexive in their work, including reporting their own mistakes and failed programs, as well as challenging the biases they may bring to the work that they do.Limitations:The sample size is small and therefore not generalizable to all social marketing experts or the social marketing community. Also, there are many parts of the world in which social marketers practice, but which are not represented by the social marketing experts. Additionally, the “mistakes” listed are based on opinion as opposed to direct observation, which may make them more susceptible to bias.

  • Social Marketing Interventions in Iran: A Systematic Review; 2002–2017
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Volume 26, Issue 1, Page 47-61, March 2020. <br/>Social marketing, as an interdisciplinary approach, has been proved effective in improving individual and social life in multiple fields. One way to expand this growing field is to investigate and evaluate the current literature on principles and benchmark criteria of social marketing. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate social marketing interventions in the country of Iran with two main objectives: (a) examining the use of seven social marketing components used in interventions and (b) investigating the scope of intervention in three social marketing streams (i.e., downstream, midstream, upstream). Following standard review studies in this field, a primary search was conducted on 13 online databases (7 Persian and 6 English databases). Using relevant keywords, Persian and English articles published from 2002 to 2017 were extracted from national and international journals. A total of 497 records were obtained from the search, 5 of which met the criteria for entering this review study. Analyses of the findings indicated that most interventions in Iran lack the minimum social marketing criteria and merely focused on a downstream approach. By investigating social marketing interventions, this research extends understanding of the social marketing status in developing countries, specifically in Iran with a non-English language. While the findings provide empirical support for the previous framework of the seven benchmark criteria, it can be concluded that Iran is at an early stage in its development of using social marketing interventions. This study recommends the use of multiple methods for conducting formative research and considers midstream and upstream approaches.

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