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SAGE Publications Inc: Social Marketing Quarterly: Table of Contents

Table of Contents for Social Marketing Quarterly. List of articles from both the latest and ahead of print issues.

Social Marketing Quarterly

  • Behind the Scenes at the Social Marketing Quarterly from the Perspective of the New Associate Editor
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Volume 26, Issue 3, Page 187-188, September 2020. <br/>

  • Application of Community-Based Social Marketing (CBSM) to Increase Recycling Behavior (RB) in Primary Schools
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Ahead of Print. <br/>Background:Recycling and waste separation is one of the most important policies for the management of municipal solid waste, and notwithstanding the importance of recycling especially at the school age, little research have been conducted in this field.Focus of the Article:In this quasi-experimental study, five steps of community-based social marketing (CBSM) were used for changing of the recycling behavior (RB).Research Question:Do CBSM strategies increase use of recycling containers versus the sole availability of containers?Program Design/Approach:The intervention was implemented in five steps and through seven CBSM strategies that include communication, social diffusion, convenience, incentives, social norms, commitment, and prompts.Importance to the Social Marketing Field:Since the RB will be influenced by environmental context, it cannot be assumed that application of CBSM theory is effective in school field. Therefore, the findings of this study are used to determine the effectiveness of environmental changes based on CBSM theory in the school field.Method:One thousand four hundred fifty-three male and female students from fourth to sixth grade in Bushehr, Iran, were evaluated in intervention and control groups from December 2018 to May 2019. In intervention group, CBSM steps were implemented, and in the control group, only blue bins and containers for recyclable materials were provided. To assess behavior change, a questionnaire consisting of three sections of demographic information, knowledge, and barrier questions was used. RB was evaluated by daily weighing waste and recyclable materials (separated) in two groups from 10 days before to 4 months after intervention. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (Version 16.0).Results:Results reveal that CBSM based strategies increased knowledge in the intervention group versus the control group. Also, CBSM strategies significantly increased the amount of recycling and reduced the waste in the intervention group. The results of this study showed that the sole availability of containers does not increase RB and reduce waste; applying CBSM based strategies is very useful and effective in removing barriers and increasing RB in schools.Recommendation for Research:It is recommended to compare the effectiveness of the application of only some CBSM strategies such as social norms, incentives, and diffusion versus all CBSM strategies for changing of RB in school setting.Limitation:A limitations of this study is that the number of students in the two groups is not the same due to the random selection of schools. Additionally, we could not control for students’ textbook content on recycling.

  • Validating the Theory of Planned Behavior Model Extended to Social Marketing Behavioral Enhancers Using Structural Equation Modeling
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Ahead of Print. <br/>Background:This study addresses the HIV/AIDS epidemic that constitutes a major health issue in South Africa, the country most burdened by the virus in the world.Focus of the Article:It is an empirical study that investigates predictive behavioral patterns between traditional components of the theory of planned behavior and the previously identified social marketing behavioral enhancers and intentions to perform preventative sexual behaviors promoted under the Abstinence, Being faithful, and Condomize campaign.Research Question:The main question this study attempts to answer is: Is it relevant to increase the theory of planned behavior components by incorporating the social marketing behavioral enhancers’ variables to design programs that successfully influence individuals to adhere to the preventative sexual behaviors?Importance to the Social Marketing Field:Results will tell social marketers, through design programs fighting the spread of the HIV set within a theory of planned behavior theoretical framework, which of the social marketing behavioral enhancers are worth integrating into their model to induce behavioral change.Methods:Theory of planned behavior models extended to social marketing behavioral enhancers for abstinence, faithfulness, and condom use were used as theoretical frameworks to test how well they are good fits of the empirically manifested structural models. Gauteng was chosen, because three of the five metropolitan municipalities with a HIV prevalence greater than 10% are located in this province. Data were collected by means of questionnaires administered to a sample chosen randomly, using a multi-stage stratification method. A quota was determined for each suburb or city considered according to the size of its population compared to the overall Gauteng population to ensure representativeness of the study’s sample.Results:The study’s theoretical frameworks fitted the data well, but results also revealed insignificant causal relationships between HIV/AIDS knowledge and all Abstinence–Being faithful–Condomize intentions. Similarly, no predictive relationships were found between accessibility to HIV/AIDS information and intention to use condoms, while attitudes toward abstinence and condom use were insignificant with their respective intentions. However, their positive correlations with predictive variables suggest that they influence intentions indirectly.Recommendation for Research:Researchers are invited to conduct further studies to test the model in a different context. Indeed, this study does not investigate whether relationships between HIV/AIDS knowledge, accessibility to HIV/AIDS information, and attitudes toward abstinence and condom use would remain insignificant or that it could not change over time in a research ground other than Gauteng. Opportunities should be explored to augment the traditional theory of planned behavior components by variables other than the social marketing behavioral enhancers, in order to build a more robust model that will incorporate more significant factors to design successful programs.Limitations:Collecting data from only one province constitutes a limitation in terms of drawing conclusions for the whole South African population.

  • Eating Behaviors in Australian Military Personnel: Constructing a System of Interest for a Social Marketing Intervention
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Volume 26, Issue 3, Page 229-243, September 2020. <br/>Background:Eating behaviors are complex and have particular significance for military personnel who require sound nutrition to support health and physical fitness for job performance. Policies and guidelines for the provision of nutritionally appropriate food/drink on base and in the field do exist; however, many military personnel have poor dietary habits, and these habits are evident early in their career. Social marketing could assist in changing unhealthy eating behaviors of personnel through implementation of feasible interventions co-created with stakeholders that are valued by Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel.Focus of the article:The article reports the first phase of a systemic co-inquiry into unhealthy eating behaviors of military personnel. This study aimed to gain an initial framing of the problem situation and thus hypothesize a “system of interest” in which to conduct future work.Research questions What components (e.g., ideas, objects, attributes, activities) are perceived to be relevant for eating behaviors in military personnel?Do interrelationships and interconnections among components suggest how unhealthy eating behaviors may emerge?Are there places that suggest viable leverage points as opportunities for changing unhealthy eating behaviors through delivery of offerings that ADF personnel value? Program Design/Approach:This study was part of a systemic inquiry approach.Methods:Data for the study included document analysis and 14 semi-structured depth interviews with ADF stakeholders. Data were thematically analyzed to construct a system of interest in which to explore how eating behaviors emerge among personnel and ADF-controlled leverage points that can be used to increase healthy eating for ADF personnel through social marketing intervention.Results:The data analysis identified alternative systems of interest in which to explore how eating behaviors emerge among personnel. Demand and supply side leverage points were identified. On the supply side, the encouragement of patronage through menu innovation, investment in facilities, cooking skills training, and auditing provision were opportunities for social marketing intervention. On the demand side, education and training coupled with communications that challenge cultural and regulatory norms and link to military values were areas that programs seeking to increase healthy eating in ADF personnel could focus on.Importance to the Social Marketing Field:As an approach for addressing “wicked” problems, the application of systems thinking in social marketing has privileged an ontological concept of system as a metaphor for reality. This approach assists in expanding the focus of change beyond the individual to include factors in social, economic, and policy environments. By using systems thinking as an epistemological device, this article offers an approach that may be applied to overcome practical and philosophical limitations in the application of systems thinking.Recommendations for Research or Practice:Research on alternative methods for applying systems thinking is recommended to strengthen the potential of system approaches in the field of social marketing.Limitations:This study is part of a broader program, and its findings on the problem of unhealthy eating behaviors in ADF are preliminary. Limitations specific to the study include the possibility of “reductionism” in stakeholder identification and self-selection bias in participation.

  • Integrating the Theory of Planned Behavior With Norm Activation in a Pro-Environmental Context
    Social Marketing Quarterly, Volume 26, Issue 3, Page 244-258, September 2020. <br/>Background:The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is one of the famous theories used to predict a person’s intentions in various contexts, using the subjective normative component. This article, therefore, focused on proposing a conceptual model to fill the existing gaps related to the pro-environmental context, based on the TPB, with the normative aspects supplemented by incorporating the norm activation theory (NAT).Focus of the Article:The interaction between subjective and personal norms needs to be considered in order to acquire empirical data support from social marketing scholars. The awareness of consequences is used to form personal norms that function as an “instrumental attitude” in predicting intention. The existence of attitude needs to be distinguished between the experiential and instrumental, reflected in the awareness of consequences.Program Design/Approach:Pro-environmental behavior (PEB) in the context of waste sorting is a shared function of intentions, personal norm, and perceived control. It plays an important role in mediating the influence of motivational factors of TPB and personal norm of NAT, on waste sorting. Communication strategies in promoting waste sorting activity have to integrate social pressure with a feeling of moral obligation.Importance to the Social Marketing Field:The conceptual model shows that the integration of TPB and NAT contributes a more comprehensive perspective for social marketers to promote the waste sorting behavior of the targeted society.Methods:Five essential stages are systematically arranged to integrate TPB and NAT. The first stage explains the basic equation of TPB and NAT. The second proposes three essential propositions. The third provides logical thinking of the integrated equation model, while the fourth stage creates the visual form and explains it in detail. The fifth stage provides a clear and concise managerial implication and limitation of the model, accompanied by the possibility to expand it in future studies.Recommendations for Research or Practice:The social marketing practitioners and academicians interested in the issue of PEB context from the community, need to consider the integration of TPB and NAT in their activities. Social pressure within the community is strengthened by the formation of a sense of moral obligation with the simultaneous strengthening of the experiential and instrumental attitude.Limitations:The proposed conceptual model is limited to the utilization of a cultural approach as the central premise. It is also limited to the use of the fundamental theory in predicting humans’ behavior in a waste sorting context.

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